ISilo esesikhotheme samaZulu uZwelithini kaBhekuzulu, uNkks uGugu Ngcobo noNdlunkulu uNompumelelo uMaMchiza beyohlangana nobukhosi bamaNgisi. Njalo ngoSepthemba iNingizimu Afrika igubha iNyanga yobuGugu

Izithombe: Zithunyelwe

Ongoti bezobugugu bageqa amagula ngesimo sobugugu nebhizinisi lalo mkhakha eNingizimu Afrika. Baxoxe noLANGA KHANYILE

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“UMA simi ngeqholo kungenxa yokuthi sigqogqoshe kokhokho abaningi ababengamaqhawe.” Sisho kanjena isisho sase-Afrika.

Minyaka yonke ngoSepthemba eNingizimu Afrika kugujwa uSuku lobuGugu, izinto ezingamagugu ezizwe zonke. Ngaphambi kukahulumeni wentando yabantu lolu suku lwalubizwa ngeShaka’s Day, lapho kwakukhunjulwa khona ubuhlakani nobuqhawe beLemb’ eleq’ amanye ngokukhalipha.

Ngokwe-website kahulumeni, i-www.gov.za, “uSuku lobuGugu ngolokukhumbula nokugubha umnotho womcebo wesizwe sakithi. Abantu baseNingizimu Afrika bagubha lolu suku ngokukhumbula ubugugu bamasiko amaningi esizwe saseNingizimu Afrika.” 

Le website iqhuba ithi ezintweni ezithinta ubugugu kukhona amasiko, umlando oxoxwayo, ukusina nomculo, izinto ezaziwa uwonkewonke, amakhono nobuchule, ulwazi lwezinto zendabuko neso lokuqonda imvelo, isizwe nobudlelwano babantu.

Kucace okwempahla yembuzi ukuthi ubugugu buthinta impilo yomuntu; uqobo lwakhe. Kuyazisho ukuthi indaba yomnotho umqoka uma kukhulunywa ngobugugu. Kwabanye lolu suku wuSuku lokuShisa iNyama, kugcine kudliwe amankwebevu, osekuzakhela amakhehla nezalukazi ezinsizweni nasezintombini zakithi.

Sithini isimo somkhakha wezobugugu eNingizimu Afrika? Ingabe ubugugu yinto yokwenziwa imboni ehlelekile neyokugaya imali njengezinye? Uhulumeni, ngeminyango ethinta ubugugu (njengowobuCiko, owezokuVakasha njll), umNyango wezeMfundo, imboni yamabhizinisi azimele abanikazi nezishabasheki zobugugu benzani ukuphatha okwezikhali zamaNtungwa leli gugu, ukuliqhakambisa nokulifukula?

USolwazi uMusa Xulu, ungoti womlando womculo, umculo wesiNtu nobugugu, uthe: “Isimo somkhakha wobugugu eNingizimu Afrika sibi kakhulu kumanje. Izikhungo ezimqoka njengeLiliesleaf Farm zisengozini yokuvalwa. Kunesimo sokungacaci noma ukungabibikho kombono ngekusasa lalo mkhakha. 

“Okwakuwumbono ekuqaleni kombuso wentando yabantu kwakuwukuthi izikhungo zobugugu ezazincishwe amathuba nobugugu balabo ababecindezelwe kuzofukulwa ngocwaningo, ukuqoshwa phansi, intuthuko, ukugcinwa nokuqhakanjiswa. Yebo, kwenzeka loko ngasekuqaleni kombuso wentando yeningi,” kusho yena. 

UXulu, ungoti womlando womculo nobugugu

UNkk uGugu Ngcobo, ungoti wobugugu nesikhulu esiphezulu seKZN Arts and Culture Trust, uthi: “Siyizizwe ezihlukene, njengamaZulu, amaNdebele, amaVenda, abeSuthu njll, senze umsebenzi omuhle ukugcina, ukuqhakambisa nokukhangisa ngobugugu bethu ngezindlela ezibonakalayo nezingabonakali. Uhulumeni, ngeminyango ehlukene, uyesekile le mikhankaso. Ngeshwa loko kwenzeke emazingeni ezindawo, kwagcina kuphelela emoyeni.

“Akwenele esesikwenzile siyizwe ukuthi sibe nezimpawu nezikhumbuzo nezinto eziqhakambisa ubugugu bethu obehlukene. Iminyango kahulumeni eyenza lowo msebenzi akukuningi ekwenzile. Ucwaningo lweHSRC (iHuman Sciences Research Council) ngo-1993 lwaveza ukuthi wu-3% kuphela wezimpawu zobugugu babantu abamnyama baseNingizimu Afrika. Kudingeka sibheke ukuthi loku sekushintshe kangakanani ngemva kweminyaka ewu-27 (yenkululeko),” kusho yena.

UMnu uBuyani Mhlongo, usihlalo weCentre for Community Arts and Local Heritage Development Trust, inhlangano engenzi nzuzo, uthI: “Kube wumzabalazo kwiziphathimandla ze-rainbow nation (iNingizimu Afrika entsha) ukutshala imali entuthukweni yengqalasizinda yobugugu ehlose ukubona, ukuvundulula nokugcina okwashatshalaliswa ngababusi bamakoloni nabobandlululo.”

UMhlongo, usihlalo weCentre for Community Arts and Local Heritage Development Trust

UMhlongo uthe imibono emisha yabantu abamnyama yokuthuthukisa ubugugu ishaywa indiva ngabaholi bepolitiki ukuthi batshale izinsiza ezanele kulo mkhakha. “Kuyadabukisa.”

Ngabe ubugugu yinto yokwenziwa umkhakha ohlelelekile nemboni?

UXulu uthi ezokuvakasha ezihambisana nobugugu bamasiko kwenza u-50% wezokuvakasha emhlabeni. “Izibalo ze-United Nations Cultural Statistics zikhomba ukuthi amathuba ebhizinisi maningi emkhakheni wobugugu, zingakabalwa ezokuvakasha.”

Uthe okunye ezinhlelweni zomnotho wobugu kungaba wukuvuselela izindawo ezindala emadolobheni,  kwenziwe iziyingi zobugugu, lapho intsha ingaba namabhizinisi khona emikhakheni ehlukene njengokudla komdabu, ukuluka ngezindlela zesiNtu, izithangami zokuxhumana ngobuchwepheshe zezivakashi, ezamasiko nobuciko.  

“Loku kungenziwa nangeminotho yasezindaweni zasemakhaya, lapho kunesidingo sokuthuthukisa izindawo ubugugu nezokuvakasha ezithinta ubugugu. Ubugugu kufanele buthathwe njengento yokuthuthukisa umnotho wendawo ngokomhlahlandlela we-UNESCO Cultural Statistics (Framework),” kusho uXulu.

Yebo, uhulumeni unezinhlelo zokufukula ubugugu, kepha yiziphi izinselelo ubugugu obubhekene nazo? Zontathu izingqapheli zibalule izinselelo eziyisimbelambela. Zibale ukusweleka kwemali, nokungabi bikho kombono nangendlela abantu abathatha ubugugu ngayo. 

UNkk uNgcobo uthi: “Ukuba mathintanyawo kwabaphathi bezwe (kuyinselelo).” Uthi kuyolamula ukungahlehli uma sekuthathwe izinqumo ezinqala.

UXulu uthi: “Enye inkinga wukungabibikho kwenqubo ecacile ezingeni likahulumeni wezwe. Loku kunomphumela nakohulumeni besifundazwe nabendawo.

“Ukudideka bokuthi ubugugu yinto yokukhunjulwa kuphela ngoSuku lobuGugu yinselelo enkulu, ngisho nasemithonjeni yezindaba imbala,” kukhalima yena.

NoNkk uNgcobo uthi imboni ekhula ngamandla emhlabeni ngeyozokuvakasha kanti ubugugu buyinsika yayo. 

Uthi: “Siyizwe silele phezu komcebo. Ubugugu bethi singabenza imboni, sikhande imali ngabo, kepha sibe sigcine ubungcwele babo. E-UK nje ubukhosi bamaNgisi yigugu lesizwe.”

Kuhamba kanjani ngeqhaza lezemfundo ekufundiseni nasekwenzeni izingane zazise ubugugu?

UMhlongo ukhale ngokuthi kuyinselelo ukuthi abantu abasekhaleni lokuguqula ezobugugu yizifundiswa nezishoshovu zepolitiki, okungenazithelo ezitheni ngenxa yokuthi bonke benza izinto besemakhosombeni abo. 

USolwazi uXulu uthi: “Izikole ziyazama ngohlelo lwazo okuthiwa ‘Ama-Culture’, okuyimiqhudelwano ngezinto ezihlukene zobugugu bamasiko, ikakhulu ukudlalwa komculo womdabo. Nokho loku akwenele. Ukhumbule ukuthi enye yezinto eziyinsika ebugugwini wukuzazi ukuthi ungubani. 

Uqhube wathi: “Izikole kufanele zandise izinto ezenziwayo ngoba ukusina indlamu ngaphandle kokuchaza ngendlela ecacile umongo wayo, isimo sayo nokudidiyelwa kwayo kugcina kuyinto yokubukisa, engenamongo. 

“Okunye futhi yizilimi. Ayikho into enqinda wonke amanyuvesi namakolishi aseKZN ukuthi afundise ngezilimi ezimbili, lapho khona isitshudeni singakwazi ukufunda ngesiZulu noma ngesiNgisi,” kusho uXulu.

Kuhlale kuthiwa uhulumeni awenze loku nalokuya. Ngabe abantu abakulo mkhakha benzani bona ukuletha ushintsho abahlale belushumayela? 

UXulu uthi abanikazi bomkhakha bangaluletha uguquko. “Empeleni kufanele benze njalo (balethe ushintsho). 

“Kepha lo mkhakha uthembela kuhulumeni kakhulu; ukuthi uwuhole nokuthi uwuxhase ngemali. Kunesidingo. Kunesidingo sokuhlonyiswa ngamakhono kwabantu ukuze izinhlelo zabo zobugugu bezozenza ngokuqonda nokuzinikela. 

“Enye into wukuthi abanikazi balo mkhakha babheke indaba ye-intellectual property (ukuvikela ubunikazi bezinto abazicabangele ngoba yiningi i-IP (i-intellectual property) ehambisana nezindlela zendabuko zolwazi.

UXulu uphethe ngelithi: “Zikhona izinto esingabukela kuzona kwezinye izindawo emhlabeni nasezigcawini ze-UNESCO, okufanele sizikopele bese sizenza zihambelane nezwe. Asihlale phezu kwazo, sigxile ezintweni zobugugu nhlangothi zonke unyaka wonke.”

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